1. Chapter 10: Acids and Bases 2. Chapter 11: Oxidations and Reduction
Acids and Bases Acids, bases, and salts are three classes of compounds that form ions in water solutions. As a basis for understanding this concept: a. Students know the observable properties of acids, bases, and salt solutions. b. Students know acids are hydrogen-ion-donating and bases are hydrogen-ion accepting substances. c. Students know strong acids and bases fully dissociate and weak acids and bases partially dissociate. d. Students know how to use the pH scale to characterize acid and base solutions. e. Students know the Arrhenius and Brønsted-Lowry acid–base definitions. f. Students know how to calculate pH from the hydrogen-ion concentration. g. Students know buffers stabilize pH in acid–base reactions.
Reduction, Oxidation and Electrochemistry 1. Oxidation–reduction reactions involve a transfer of electrons, by using the concepts of the structure of the atom and from the meanings for electronegativity, oxidation–reduction and the activity series. As a basis for understanding this concept: Students should be able to a. describe the information contained in the activity series and how it was developed b. define oxidation as a loss of electrons and reduction as a gain of electrons c. relate the terms oxidation and reduction to bonds forming between metals and nonmetals; e.g., corrosion. d. define the terms: oxidizing agent, reducing agent, oxidation number, half-reaction, auto-oxidation (disproportionation). e. identifying electron transfer, oxidizing agents and reducing agents in oxidation–reduction reactions. f. writing and balancing equations for oxidation–reduction reactions using half-reaction equations obtained from a standard reduction potential table.
2. Electrochemical (Galvanic or Voltaic) cells operate on the energy of spontaneous oxidation–reduction reactions, while electrolytic cells require electrical energy to cause non-spontaneous oxidation–reduction reactions to occur, by using the design of a wet cell and the qualitative relationships in chemical changes, and by: a. defining and identifying, on diagrams of electrochemical (Voltaic or Galvanic) and electrolytic cells, the following: anode, cathode, anion, cation; as well as salt bridge/porous cup and external circuit for the former and power supply for the latter. b. predicting and writing balanced equations for reactions at the anode and the cathode of electrochemical (Voltaic or Galvanic) and electrolytic cells recognizing that predictions and observations do not always concur; e.g., the production of chlorine gas from the electrolysis of brine. c. identifying, on diagrams of electrochemical (Voltaic or Galvanic) and electrolytic cells, the flow of electrons, the migration of anions and cations, mass and colour changes, formation of gases, and precipitates, at the electrodes. d. defining standard reduction potential and explaining how the values are all relative to E° = 0.00 V set for the standard hydrogen electrode e. calculating standard cell potential values for oxidation–reduction reactions. f. predicting the spontaneity or non-spontaneity of oxidation–reduction reactions on the basis of calculated standard cell potential values and relative positions of half-reaction equations on a standard reduction potential table.
1. Required Text: Suchocki, J., Conceptual Chemistry, 2nd ed. Benjamin Cummings, 2004 2. Required Material: a. Scientific or Graphing Calculator b. Separate Bind Notebook as Lab Notebook
1. Lectures (Notes and Examples). 2. Class Discussions on Homework, Lab and Chemical Concepts. 3. Individual Laboratory and Lab Reports. 4. In-class Actual and Multimedia Demonstrations to illustrate Lab Techniques and/or Chemical Concepts.
Quarter Grade: 1. Lab Reports and Activities (30%) 2. Homework / Notebook (25%) 3. Chapter Quizzes / Tests (45%)) Semester II Final Exam (20% of Semester Grade)
Acids and Bases Students should be able to demonstrate the skills and thinking processes associated with the practice of science, by: a. calculating concentrations of H+ or OH? for strong acids and bases. b. constructing a table comparing pH and hydrogen ion concentration in order to illustrate that as the hydrogen ion concentration increases, the pH decreases. c. designing and performing an experiment to differentiate among strong and weak acids and bases and a variety of neutral solutions. d. performing a titration experiment and related calculations to determine the concentration of an acid or base solution. e. using laboratory glassware related to titrations. f. using indicators to determine the approximate pH of an acid or base solution.
Reduction, Oxidation and Electrochemistry Students should be able to demonstrate the skills and thinking processes associated with the practice of science, by: a. using data contained in periodic table and the activity series to predict bonding and electron transfer between elements. b. evaluating an experiment for deriving a simple reduction table.. c. observing and describing an electrolytic cell, comparing predictions and observations. d. designing the standard cell potential of an electrochemical (Voltaic or Galvanic) cell, comparing predictions and observations. e. using a standard reduction potential table as a tool in predicting the spontaneity of oxidation-reduction reactions and their products. f. evaluate predictions about oxidation-reduction reaction with regard to spontaneity, products, and standard cell potential values.