Chapter 7: Molecular Mixing Chapter 8: Those Incredible Water Molecules Chapter 9: An Overview of Chemical Reactions
Chemical Bonds Biological, chemical, and physical properties of matter result from the ability of atoms to form bonds from electrostatic forces between electrons and protons and between atoms and molecules. As a basis for understanding this concept: a. Students know how to identify solids and liquids held together by Van der Waals forces or hydrogen bonding and relate these forces to volatility and boiling / melting point temperatures.
Conservation of Matter and Stoichiometry The conservation of atoms in chemical reactions leads to the principle of conservation of matter and the ability to calculate the mass of products and reactants. As a basis for understanding this concept: a. Students know how to describe chemical reactions by writing balanced equations. b. Students know the quantity one mole is set by defining one mole of carbon 12 atoms to have a mass of exactly 12 grams. c. Students know one mole equals 6.02 ? 1023 particles (atoms or molecules). d. Students know how to determine the molar mass of a molecule from its chemical formula and a table of atomic masses and how to convert the mass of a molecular substance to moles, number of particles, or volume of gas at standard temperature and pressure. e. Students know how to calculate the masses of reactants and products in a chemical reaction from the mass of one of the reactants or products and the relevant atomic masses. f. Students know how to calculate percent yield in a chemical reaction.
Gases and Their Properties The kinetic molecular theory describes the motion of atoms and molecules and explains the properties of gases. As a basis for understanding this concept: a. Students know the random motion of molecules and their collisions with a surface create the observable pressure on that surface. b. Students know the random motion of molecules explains the diffusion of gases. c. Students know how to apply the gas laws to relations between the pressure, temperature, and volume of any amount of an ideal gas or any mixture of ideal gases. d. Students know the values and meanings of standard temperature and pressure (STP). e. Students know how to convert between the Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales. f. Students know there is no temperature lower than 0 Kelvin. g. Students know the kinetic theory of gases relates the absolute temperature of a gas to the average kinetic energy of its molecules or atoms. h. Students know how to solve problems by using the ideal gas law in the form PV = nRT.
Solutions Solutions are homogenous mixtures of two or more substances. As a basis for understanding this concept: a. Students know the definitions of solute and solvent. b. Students know how to describe the dissolving process at the molecular level by using the concept of random molecular motion. c. Students know temperature, pressure, and surface area affect the dissolving process. d. Students know how to calculate the concentration of a solute in terms of grams per Litre, molarity, parts per million, and percent composition. e. Students know the relationship between the molality of a solute in a solution and the solution’s depressed freezing point or elevated boiling point. f. Students know how molecules in a solution are separated or purified by the methods of distillation.
Chemical Thermodynamics Energy is exchanged or transformed in all chemical reactions and physical changes of matter. As a basis for understanding this concept: a. Students know how to describe temperature and heat flow in terms of the motion of molecules (or atoms). b. Students know chemical processes can either release (exothermic) or absorb (endothermic) thermal energy. c. Students know energy is released when a material condenses or freezes and is absorbed when a material evaporates or melts. d. Students know how to solve problems involving heat flow and temperature changes, using known values of specific heat and latent heat of phase change. e. Students know how to apply bond energies to calculate enthalpy change in a reaction.
1. Required Text: Suchocki, J., Conceptual Chemistry, 2nd ed. Benjamin Cummings, 2004 2. Required Material: a. Scientific or Graphing Calculator b. Separate Bind Notebook as Lab Notebook
1. Lectures (Notes and Examples). 2. Class Discussions on Homework, Lab and Chemical Concepts. a. Individual Laboratory and Lab Reports. b. In-class Actual and Multimedia Demonstrations to illustrate Lab Techniques and/or Chemical Concepts.
Students should be able to demonstrate the skills and thinking processes associated with the practice of science, by: a. comparing and explaining concisely the differences in physical properties of various substances using molecular geometry and intermolecular forces b. predicting relative solubility of selected ionic compounds using a solubility chart and/or experimentation. c. converting between moles, mass and number of particles. d. using a simple conductivity apparatus to perform an experiment to identify solutions. e. using a balance and volumetric glassware to prepare solutions of specified concentration. f. performing an experiment to determine the identity of an ion, using simple qualitative test, including solution colour, flame tests and solubility. g. writing dissociation/ionization equations for dissolved strong acids and ionic compounds. h. calculating, from empirical data, the concentration of solutions in moles per litre of solution and determining mass or volume form such concentrations. i. performing experiments to test the validity of assumptions contained in stoichiometric methods, by, for example, predicting reaction results, then measuring the amount of product obtained from a reaction, and calculating the percent yield. j. using appropriate glassware and equipment to perform a titration experiment to determine the concentration of a solution. k. performing and evaluating an experiment, based on a precipitation reaction, to determine the concentration of a solution. l. performing and evaluating an experiment based on such methods as crystallization, filtration or titration, to determine the concentration of a solution. M. drawing and interpreting graphs of experimental data that relate pressure and temperature to gas volume. n. evaluating an experiment to illustrate the gas laws, which identify and control variables. o. evaluating an experiment to determine molar mass from gaseous volume. p. using empirical data to do calculations based on ideal gas law. q. describing qualitatively as well as calculate quantitative of various colligative properties as well as molar mass determinations. r. performing and evaluating experiments to determine the enthalpy change of physical and chemical change to matter. s performing calculations based on empirical date gathered from experiments demonstrating energy changes associated with physical and chemical changes of matter. t. evaluate an experimental procedure to compare the molar enthalpy change of burning two or more fuels.